參考文獻
作者:曲升      更新:2024-06-08 12:09      字數:2588
    [1] U. S.Department of Defense, “Freedom of Navigation (FON) Program, ” February 28, 2017, https://policy.defense.gov/Portals/11/DoD%20FON%20Program%20Summary%2016.pdf?ver=2017-03-03-141350-380, 2019-10-09.

    [2] Armin Rappaport and William Earl Weeks, “Freedom of the Seas, ” in Alexander DeConde et al.eds.,Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, Vol.2, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002, pp.111, 121.

    [3] J. M.Kenworthy and George Young, The Freedom of the Seas, London: Hutchinson & CO.Publishers LTD., 1928, p.15.

    [4] Samuel Flagg Bemis, A Diplomatic History of the United States, 4th ed., New York: Henry Holt, 1955, p.875.

    [5] Max Savelle, “Colonial Origins of American Diplomatic Principles, ” Pacific Historical Review, Vol.3, No.3 (September 1934),pp.343-344.

    [6]美國外交史學(xué)界對美國海洋自由觀(guān)念起源問(wèn)題的研究較為分散,除薩維爾的“殖民地起源”說(shuō)外,格雷格·林特考察了約翰·亞當斯與1776年“條約計劃”的起草問(wèn)題,指出亞當斯對當時(shí)歐洲國家條約加以借鑒,參見(jiàn)Gregg L. Lintt,“John Adams on the Drafting of the Treaty Plan of 1776,” Diplomatic History,Vol.2,No.3(Summer 1978),pp.313-320.國內的美國外交史學(xué)界尚無(wú)專(zhuān)門(mén)探討美國海洋自由觀(guān)念根源的成果。在與該問(wèn)題有一定相關(guān)性的研究中,王曉德教授的論文《一七七六年“條約計劃”及其對美國早期外交的影響》(《歷史研究》2010年第5期)對1776年“條約計劃”的思想意識根源及其影響進(jìn)行了深入分析,認為它在很大程度上是美國開(kāi)國元勛的“美國例外論”和“不卷入歐洲政治紛爭”思想的反映,但該文沒(méi)有涉及“條約計劃”所包含的海洋自由觀(guān)念的根源問(wèn)題;李文雯的博士論文《美國海洋航行自由原則的演變及其對美國海軍力量發(fā)展的影響(美國建國——第二次世界大戰結束)》(博士學(xué)位論文,外交學(xué)院,2015年)第二章探討了美國海洋航行自由原則的確立,但亦未深入考察該原則的根源所在。

    [7]參見(jiàn)“Address of the President of United States to the Senate, ” January 22, 1917, United States Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: 1917, Supplement1, The World War, Washington DC.: U. S.Government Printing Office, 1931, p.28;John D. Negroponte, “Who Will Protect Freedom of The Seas?”The Department of State Bulletin, Vol.86, No.2115 (October 1986), p.41.

    [8] Joel Munsell, ed., The Hutchinson Papers, Vol.1, Albany: The Prince Society, 1865, p.143.

    [9] Max Savelle, “Colonial Origins of American Diplomatic Principles, ” pp.343-344.

    [10]參見(jiàn)Hugo Grotius, The Free Sea, translated by Richard Hakluyt with William Welwod’s critique and Grotius’s reply, edited and with an introduction by David Armitage, Indianapolis, Indiana: Liberty Fund, Inc., 2004.

    [11]王曉德:《試論務(wù)實(shí)傳統對美國外交的影響》,《歷史研究》,1998年第4期,第117、119頁(yè)。

    [12]劉澤榮:《領(lǐng)海法概論》,世界知識出版社1965年版,第18頁(yè)。

    [13]參見(jiàn)Pitman Potter, The Freedom of the Seas in History, Law and Politics, New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1924, pp.94-95.

    [14] Jesse S. Reeves, “The Influence of the Law of Nature upon International Law in the United States, ” The American Journal of International Law, Vol.3, No.3 (July 1909), pp.550-551.

    [15]當時(shí)有許多殖民地的章程都授予美洲人以“英國人的權利”,參見(jiàn)[美]托馬斯·帕特森著(zhù),顧肅、呂建高譯:《美國政治文化》,東方出版社2007年版,第43頁(yè)。

    [16] Douglas Owen, “Capture at Sea: Modern Conditions and the Ancient Prize Laws, ” Journal of the Royal United Service Institution, Vol.49, No.2(July 1905), p.1236.

    [17] Francis R. Stark, “The Abolition of Privateering and the Declaration of Paris, ” Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, Vol.8, No.3, New York: Columbia University, 1897, p.69.

    [18] John Franklin Jameson, ed.,Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period: Illustrative Documents, New York: Macmillan Company, 1923, p.xi.

    [19] The Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section Ⅷ, https://constitution.congress.gov/constitution/, 2019-07-18.

    [20]參見(jiàn)Nicholas Parrillo, “The De­Privatization of American Warfare: How the U. S.Government Used, Regulated, and Ultimately Abandoned Privateering in the Nineteenth Century, ” Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities, Vol.19, No.1 (Winter 2007), pp.74-95.

    [21] Philip C. Jessup and Francis Deák, “The Early Development of the Law of Neutral Rights, ”P(pán)olitical Science Quarterly, Vol.46, No.4 (December 1931), pp.497-499.

    [22] “Marine Treaty in 1674, ” in Extracts, from the Several Treaties Subsisting between Great Britain and the Other Kingdoms and States: of Such Articles and Clauses, as Relate to the Duty and Conduct of the Commanders of His Majesty's Ships of War, the Third Edition, London, 1758, pp.132-141.

    [23] “Treaty of Navigation and Commerce between the Crowns of Great Britain and France, Concluded at Utrecht, March 31, 1713, ” in Extracts, from the Several Treaties Subsisting between Great Britain and the Other Kingdoms and States: of Such Articles and Clauses, as Relate to the Duty and Conduct of the Commanders of His Majesty's Ships of War, pp.43-59.

    [24] O.H.Mootham, “The Doctrine of Continuous Voyage, 1756-1815, ” British Year Book of International Law, Vol.8 (1927), p.65.

    [25] [美]托馬斯·本德著(zhù),孫琇譯:《萬(wàn)邦一國:美國在世界歷史上的地位》,中信出版集團2019年版,第21頁(yè)。

    [26] Jesse S. Reeves, “The Influence of the Law of Nature upon International Law in the United States, ” p. 551.

    [27] Perry Miller, The Life of the Mind in American from the Revolution to the Civil War, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1965, pp.109, 145-146.

    [28] Mark Weston Janis, America and the Law of Nations, 1776-1939, New York: Oxford University Press, 2010, pp.24-25.

    [29] [美]大衛·阿米蒂奇著(zhù),孫岳譯:《獨立宣言:一種全球史》,商務(wù)印書(shū)館2014年版,第24-25頁(yè);Mark Weston Janis, America and the Law of Nations, 1776-1939, p.25.

    [30] John Adams, “Autobiography, ” in Charles Francis Adams, ed., The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: With a Life of the Author, Vol.3, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1851, p.52.

    [31] Worthington C. Ford, ed.,Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, Vol.5, Washington: U. S.Government Printing Office, 1906, pp.768-779.

    [32]例如在1773年1月26日和3月2日代表馬薩諸塞州眾議院寫(xiě)給總督托馬斯·哈欽森的書(shū)面答復中,亞當斯多次提到并引用格勞秀斯、普芬道夫和瓦特爾的言論,以論證其議會(huì )對殖民地權力有限論。參見(jiàn)Robert J. Taylor, et al., eds., Papers of John Adams, Vol.1, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977, pp.320-321, 327, 330, 331, 335, 344-345.

    [33] Charles Francis Adams, ed.,The Works of John Adams, Vol.2, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1850, p.516.

    [34] Gregg L. Lint, “John Adams on the Drafting of the Treaty Plan of 1776, ” pp.313-320.

    [35] Jesse S. Reeves, “The Influence of the Law of Nature upon International Law in the United States, ” p. 558.

    [36] Charles Francis Adams, ed.,The Works of John Adams, Vol.10, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1856, p.269.

    [37] Charles Francis Adams, ed.,The Works of John Adams, Vol.2, pp.488-489.

    [38] “John Adams to John Winthrop, ” Philadelphia, June 23, 1776, in Edmund Burnett, ed., Letters of Members of the Continental Congress, Vol.1, Washington, DC.: The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1921, p.502.

    [39] James R. Sofka, “The Jeffersonian Idea of National Security: Commerce, the Atlantic Balance of Power, and the Barbary War, 1785-1805, ” Diplomatic History, Vol.21, No.4 (Fall 1997), pp.520-524;James R. Sofka, “American Neutral Rights Reappraised: Identity or Interest in the Foreign Policy of the Early Republic?” Review of International Studies, Vol.26, No.4 (October 2000), p.608.

    [40] Gerard Clarfield, “John Adams: The Marketplace, and American Foreign Policy, ” The New England Quarterly, Vol.52, No.3 (September 1979), p.348.

    [41] “John Adams to the President of Congress, ” April 10, 1780, in Francis Wharton, ed.,Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, Vol.3, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1889, pp.606-608.

    [42] “John Adams to Digges, ” May 13, 1780;“John Adams to the President of Congress, ” May 20, 1780, in Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, Vol.3, pp.676-677, 693-696.

    [43] “The Peace Commissioner (J.Adams) to the President of the Continental Congress (Huntington), ” Paris, April 14, 1780, in Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, pp.612-614.

    [44] Carlton Savage, Policy of the United States toward Maritime Commerce in War, Vol.Ⅰ, 1776-1914, Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1934, p.4.

    [45] Edwards S. Corwin, “The Freedom of the Seas, ” The North American Review, Vol.209, No.758 (1919), p.34;John H. Latané, “The Freedom of the Seas, ” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol.84 (July 1919), p.163.

    [46]參見(jiàn)William Arnold­Foster, The New Freedom of the Seas, London: Methuen & Co.Ltd., 1942, p.33.

    [47] [法]盧梭著(zhù),何兆武譯:《社會(huì )契約論》,商務(wù)印書(shū)館2005年版,第14頁(yè)。

    [48] William Arnold-Foster, The New Freedom of the Seas, p.34.

    [49]參見(jiàn)資中筠:《20世紀的美國》,商務(wù)印書(shū)館2018年版,第36頁(yè)。

    [50] Carine Lounissi, “French Writers on the American Revolution in the Early 1780s: A Republican Moment?” in Maria O’Malley, et al, eds., Beyond 1776: Globalizing the Cultures of the American Revolution, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2018, pp.78-85.

    [51] A.Owen Aldridge, “John Adams Meets the Abbé Mably, ” Dalhousie French Studies, Vol.52 (Fall 2000), pp.88-99.

    [52] “Franklin to Oswald, ” Passy, January 14, 1783, in Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, Vol.6, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1889, p.210.

    [53] “Propositions Made by Commissioners to David Hartley for the Definitive Treaty, ” June 1, 1783, in The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, Vol.6, pp.470-471.

    [54] “Treaty Plan of the Continental Congress, May 7, 1784, ” in Gaillard Hunt, ed., Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, Vol.26, Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1928, pp.357-362.

    [55] “Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Prussia, September 10, 1785, ” in Hunter Miller, ed., Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America, Vol.2, Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1931, pp.162-183.

    [56] “Reasons in Support of the New Proposed Articles in the Treaties of Commerce, ” November 10, 1784, in The Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, 1783-1789, Vol.1, pp.532-533.

    [57] Samuel Flagg Bemis, John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy, New York: Knop, 1949, p.43.

    [58] John Bassett Moore, American Diplomacy: Its Spirit and Achievements, New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1905, pp.63, 251-252, 266.

    [59]錢(qián)滿(mǎn)素:《前沿》,《美國自由主義的歷史變遷》,生活·讀書(shū)·新知三聯(lián)書(shū)店2006年版,第5頁(yè)。

    [60]參見(jiàn)Thomas L. Pangle, The Spirit of Modern Republicanism: The Moral Vision of the American Founders and the Philosophy of Locke, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p.2;王立新:《意識形態(tài)與美國外交政策:以20世紀美國對華政策為個(gè)案的研究》,北京大學(xué)出版社2007年版,第53-54頁(yè)。

    [61]參見(jiàn)Alfred E. Eckes, Jr., Opening America's Market: U. S.Foreign Trade Policy Since 1776, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995, p.4;王曉德:《美國開(kāi)國先輩們的自由貿易思想探析》,《世界歷史》,2003年第2期,第25頁(yè)。

    [62]楊生茂主編:《美國外交政策史(1775—1989)》,人民出版社1992年版,第26頁(yè)。

    [63] [美]沃爾特·拉塞爾·米德著(zhù),曹化銀譯:《美國外交政策及其如何影響了世界》,中信出版社2003年版,第112-113頁(yè)。

    [64] Gregg L. Lint, “The American Revolution and the Law of Nations, 1776-1789, ” Diplomatic History, Vol.1, No.1 (Winter 1977), p.33.

    [65]相關(guān)內容可參見(jiàn)曲升:《從海洋自由到海洋霸權:威爾遜海洋政策構想的轉變》,《世界歷史》,2017年第3期;曲升:《富蘭克林·羅斯福政府對美國海洋自由觀(guān)的重塑及其歷史影響》,《世界歷史》,2022年第1期。